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Monday, 27 July 2020

03 countries doing geographic exploration

03 countries doing geographical exploration
All the countries of Europe were eager and eager to explore new sea routes and new geographical areas, but Portugal and Spain played a special enthusiasm and leading role in this process. Portugal was also at the forefront of these two countries. Why so ? The main reasons are
(1) Most entrepreneurial maritime operations in Portugal, such as-
Fisheries were connected to fisheries, shipping operations, harbor arrangements, etc. Puttagala was a hilly and inhospitable region, and there were many farmers and rural laborers migrating to the cities after the plague-like epidemic called 'Black Death' in 1348-49. Was engaged in maritime activities. Thus Portugal had a sufficient number of specialist classes available in maritime operations.
(2) Portugal had a long long maritime strip and efficient ports that could be used for maritime expeditions.
(3) Both Portugal and Spain had stable, efficient and interested governments in maritime expeditions, and the trading class there was independent of the hegemony of the feudalist mentality, and was bold.
(4) Portugal was economically prosperous, with Northern Europe being the major country supplying goods produced in the Mediterranean climate. Putrtagal had adequate availability of physical and human resources for new discoveries.
(5) Compared to England and France, Portugal and Spain were relatively free from the catastrophe of Catholics and Protestants religious conflict.

(01) Portuguese expeditions and their geographical discoveries
The first expedition of geographical exploration began in the region of the Atlantic Ocean and the western coasts of Africa. In 1415 King John of Portugal took over the coast of Africa, the territory of Siota under the Arab people, opening the way for the Portuguese to expand along the coast of Africa. The most interested person in the sea expedition of Puttagal was King John's son, Prince Henry (1394– 1460), who is known in history as Prince Henry, "The Navigator (Sailor)" because of his naval interest. . Prince Henry established a naval learning center in Portugal, where many sailors, geographers and astronomers from Europe gathered and discussed. Prince Henry showed great interest in Portugal's maritime expeditions and victories in new territories. In 1418, the islands of Madeira were discovered and captured by the Portuguese, in 1427 they found and captured Ajores. Seven years after this, circling Cape Bozador, they reached the river Swarnadi and Senegal. Cape large islands were discovered here. Thus the purpose of the first phase of the Portuguese maritime expeditions was to discover the islands of the Atlantic Commonwealth and the territories of the west coast of Africa in which they were successful. The Portuguese built their colonies on the islands and territories discovered in this region, made fortifications of these areas, and started trade with the local people. It was here that the trade of slaves began. Many companies were established and authorized to exploit new territories, manage their security systems and carry on geographical exploration, Prince Henry had heard about India and he was on the sea route to reach India. Khoj wanted to be removed but his wish could not be fulfilled during his lifetime.

In 1486, an important discovery was made by Portuguese sailor Bartholomew Diaz as he moved southward along the west coast of Africa, reaching his typical, southern end where he called the 'Utmasha Antripe' (Cape of Good Hope) tracked down. This discovery paved the way for the sea route to reach India. Meanwhile, Padre de Covilham and Alfonso de Peva were sent to the terrains of Egypt and the Indian Ocean so that they could know the routes of the Indian Ocean.

Vasco da Gama was authorized to explore the route of India from the waters of South Africa with its three ships. He sailed from Portugal in June 1497 and reached the Utmasha Antripe, located on the southern end of Africa, in November by the route discovered by Diaz. From there, he turned back towards the north, and with the help of the eastern edge of the continent of Africa, reached Malindi. There he took the information of the route of the Indian Ocean from Arab sailors, and finally after crossing the Indian Ocean directly, he reached Calicut, on the south-western side of India, on 18 May 1498. India was discovered, which proved to be very important for Europe and Asia. Earlier, Arabs had a monopoly on trade between countries of East and West for many centuries; 'The medieval era dominated the Arabs in civilization and science. This was based on this fact.' On the arrival of Vasco da Gama in the Indian Ocean, the ears of the Arab traders were raised and they saw their business monopoly in crisis. He made several attempts to thwart the campaign of Vasco da Gama. In Calicut, Vasco da Gama was welcomed by Arab merchants saying, "The evil devil will destroy you." Why have you come here? " It was certain that the Arab people were so rich in this area