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Friday, 31 July 2020

06 Internal Reforms of Napoleon

06 Internal Reforms of Napoleon
In this way, after strengthening the position of France at the international level, Napoleon focused on France's internal reform process. In the words of Hedge (Modern Europe to 1870), ‘Consulate
The period of (1799–1804) was the period of Bonaparte's main and most enduring contributions to the development of institutions in France. 'Napoleon's fame lies mainly in his military achievements, but the important reforms made by him as the first consul led to his Made immortal. According to David Thomson (Europe Sins Napoleon), the period 1800 to 1803 as Napoleon's first consul was' one of the most important periods in the entire modern history of France; Napoleon's most creatively valuable work was done in this period. In the task of reorganizing France, Napoleon displayed the qualities of quick judgment and functionalism, demonstrating the same degree of precision and concentration as he had demonstrated in the wars.

France's Revolutionary Decade (1789 to 1799).
During the period, but the reforms done during that period lacked internal consistency and perfection. With this view Napoleon carried forward the work of revolution. Its purpose was a systematic reorganization of the administrative, economic and legal structure of France. While on one hand he wanted to develop an efficient system for his monopolistic convenience, his aspiration was to have his indelible signatures on the page of time - the signature of the public welfare works of a mascot dictator.

01 Economic Reform
It is noteworthy that the financial disorder of France was an important reason for the collapse of Louis's monarchical government in 1789 and the directory in 1799. Napoleon was conscious from the beginning that the financial crisis in France should not reappear, in the words of David Thomson, 'The cancerous financial administration and revenue system was first rectified under the influence of the ancient system. Established the Bank of France which became the most powerful financial institution in the country. On one hand, the Bank of France controlled the system of government loans and revenue collection on the one hand, and on the other hand also encouraged commerce by giving loans at low interest rate. In 1803, the Bank of France was granted a monopoly to issue banknotes.

Napoleon centralized the system of revenue collection; The task of recovering revenue from various regions of France was now entrusted to the officers directly appointed by the Central Government. Before the revolution
In the era, collection of taxes was done by the autonomous regional authorities.

Napoleon issued orders for strict austerity in government expenditure. Corrupt officials
Began to be punished. Napoleon arranged that the costs of the expenditure of the military campaigns of France
Do not fall on the public and such expenses should be recovered from the defeated nation.

It was due to Napoleon's efficient economic policies that the 'miracle work' of presenting a balanced budget in the financial year 1801-1802 was completed in France.

02 social reform
With a view to achieving widespread public support for his kingdom, Napoleon sought to improve the condition of almost all social classes in France, in this regard, his most important declaration was that his land was acquired by the peasants during the progress of the revolution. Will be owned; This announcement was very much welcomed in rural areas. The wages of laborers working in the city were also increased. The bourgeoisie was very pleased with Napoleon's kingdom, as his prosperity was secured by a permanent, efficient government. Those of the nobility and clergy who had fled France during the reign of terror were assured of employment and security during Napoleon's time, and they resettled in France. In society, feelings of mutual estrangement were loosening and an internal harmony developing Napoleon accepted neither feudal privileges nor class-based revenue system, thus stamping the social scope of the revolution.

But Napoleon did not believe in the flat principle of social equality; He believed that deserving and talented people should get special respect. With this in view, he founded 'The Legion of Honor' in 1802, whose membership, without distinction of caste, clan, rank and religion, was given to such deserving people who faithfully served France. was. Napoleon said, "The French have a feeling - respect; We should be celebrating this feeling. 'This was a new social experiment of Napoleon' aristocracy of merit '.

03 National System of Education
The Church had authority over education in the ancient system of France. In the period of revolution, a national education system was conceived, freeing it from the influence of the Church, it was also implemented in a very minority, but the national method of education was widely and effectively, at all levels of education, Napoleon owes credit to the prevalence. During Napoleon's era, primary, secondary, upper secondary, university, technical, vocational, military